A. Cấu trúc bài thi IELTS Listening Thí sinh dự thi IELTS sẽ làm bài
4 lưu ý quan trọng khi sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh
Mệnh đề quan hệ (Relative clause) là một mệnh đề phụ được dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ (noun) hoặc cụm danh từ (noun phrase) đứng trước nó.
Mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh là điểm ngữ pháp Advanced mà chúng ta cần phải nắm thật vững. Nếu muốn đạt điểm cao trong IELTS nói chung và IELTS Writing nói riêng, hãy lưu ý và note lại 4 lưu ý quan trọng khi sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ được tổng hợp bởi tác giả Pham Nguyen tại Group Tự học PTE-IELTS 9.0 nhé.
1. Dùng Which để đại điện nguyên cả câu phía trước
Ví dụ 1:I bought a new car. It is very fast.
→ I bought a new car that is very fast.Ví dụ 2:She lives in New York. She likes living in New York.
→ She lives in New York, which she likes.
Chú ý: WHICH có ý nghĩa đại diện cho cả câu She lives in New York ở phía trước.
Which có thể rút gọn thành Ving trong mệnh đề quan hệ
- Ví dụ 1:
Diets that are high in saturated fat clog up our arteries, thereby reducing the blood flow to our hearts and brains.
Câu này chính là câu rút gọn của: Diets that are high in saturated fat clog up our arteries, which thereby reduces the blood flow to our hearts and brains. => mang nghĩa là cái việc mà (Diets that are high in saturated fat clog up our arteries) làm (reduces the blood flow to our hearts and brains)
- Ví dụ 2:
They had failed to agree to a settlement, thereby throwing 250 people out of work.==> They had failed to agree to a settlement, which thereby threw 250 people out of work.
2. Defining and Non-defining Relative Clause
A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about:
- I like the woman who lives next door.
(If I don’t say “who lives next door”, then we don’t know which woman I mean).
A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. We don’t need this information to understand the sentence.
- I live in London, which has some fantastic parks.
(Everybody knows where London is, so ‘which has some fantastic parks’ is extra information).
We don’t use ‘that’ in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use ‘which’ if the pronoun refers to a thing, and ‘who’ if it refers to a person.
- My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester.
- My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars.
- My bicycle, which I’ve had for more than ten years, is falling apart.
3. Prepositions and relative clauses
- listen to
The music is good. Julie listens to the music.
→ The music (which / that) Julie listens to is good.
- work with
My brother met a woman. I used to work with the woman.
→ My brother met a woman (who / that) I used to work with.
- go to
The country is very hot. He went to the country.
→ The country (which / that) he went to is very hot.
- come from
I visited the city. John comes from the city.
→ I visited the city (that / which) John comes from.
- apply for
The job is well paid. She applied for the job.
→ The job (which / that) she applied for is well paid.
Whose: ‘Whose’ is always the subject of the relative clause and can’t be left out. It replaces a possessive. It can be used for people and things.
The dog is over there. The dog’s / its owner lives next door.
→ The dog whose owner lives next door is over there.
The little girl is sad. The little girl’s / her doll was lost.
→ The little girl whose doll was lost is sad.
The woman is coming tonight. Her car is a BMW.
→ The woman whose car is a BMW is coming tonight.
The house belongs to me. Its roof is very old.
→ The house whose roof is old belongs to me.
Where / when / why: We can sometimes use these question words instead of relative pronouns and prepositions.
I live in a city. I study in the city.→ I live in the city where I study.
→ I live in the city that / which I study in.
→ I live in the city in which I study.
The bar in Barcelona is still there. I met my wife in that bar.→ The bar in Barcelona where I met my wife is still there.
→ The bar in Barcelona that / which I met my wife in is still there.
→ The bar in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there.
The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer.→ The summer when I graduated from university was long and hot.
→ The summer that / which I graduated from university in was long and hot.
→ The summer in which I graduated was long and hot.
4. Sử dụng From Which với nghĩa Thanks to / As a consequence
Ví dụ 1:
- It is not to mention the fact that the school also allows children to communicate with people from all walks of life, ranging from their peers to dustmen or healthcare workers, from which there is a fair chance that children will learn to behave with different types of people in an appropriate way
Ví dụ 2:
- Through international news on televisions, students may know which foreign language is currently dominant in the world, from which they have a clear orientation for their studying programs.
Vừa rồi là một số lưu ý về cách dùng mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh, các lưu ý này có thể được áp dụng trong IELTS Writing và được giám khảo đánh giá khá cao về khả năng sử dụng ngữ pháp. Mong rằng các bạn đã có thêm một số kiến thức bổ ích về mệnh đề quan hệ qua bài viết này.
Tham khảo các chủ đề ngữ pháp khác:
Trọng điểm ngữ pháp sử dụng trong bài thi IELTS
Lỗi ngữ pháp phổ biến
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